Smoke-free sports clubs for a smoke-free generation
Kinderen kunnen alleen rookvrij opgroeien als roken in hun omgeving niet meer zichtbaar is of normaal gevonden wordt. Sportclubs spelen hierin een belangrijke rol. In Nederland hebben al circa 200 clubs stappen genomen om roken van hun terrein te bannen. Het is echter onzeker of zij daarmee het roken voor kinderen minder zichtbaar en normaal hebben gemaakt. Dit project zal onderzoeken of deze interventies er in slagen het roken echt minder zichtbaar en normaal te maken, en hoe dit afhangt van hun precieze uitvoering.
Het onderzoek betreft een doorontwikkeling en implementatie van het stappenplan van de Nederlandse Hartstichting om sportclubs rookvrij te maken om zo jongeren te ontmoedigen om te beginnen met roken. Observationeel en experimenteel onderzoek zal worden gedaan onder diverse voetbal-, hockey- en korfbalclubs. Met open interviews en focusgroepen worden ervaringen van bestuursleden, coaches, ouders en jeugdleden onderzocht.
Op basis van de resultaten wordt een protocol ontwikkeld voor effectieve uitvoering van rookvrije sportclubs. Ook worden de mogelijkheden onderzocht voor ondersteunende regelgeving, zodat uiteindelijk alle kinderen in Nederland rookvrij kunnen sporten.
Het onderzoek wordt uitgevoerd door een consortium van de volgende partijen:
Amsterdam UMC (locatie AMC), Tranzo Tilburg University, Sportief Advies, Gemeente Amsterdam, GGD Amsterdam, GGD Brabant-Zuidoost, GGD Gooi en Vechtstreek, Hartstiching, RIVM, VNG, NOC*NSF, GGD GHOR en Sportclub HVV Ras.
Voor meer informatie over dit project kunt u contact opnemen met Prof. dr. A.E. Kunst - E: email@example.com - T: 020 566 16 45
Producten van ZonMw
Lees ook het interview Sportclubs rookvrij maken en jongeren ontmoedigen om te beginnen met roken uit onze artikelenreeks Effect- en implementatieonderzoek naar interventies rond stoppen met roken.
Samenvatting van de aanvraag
The tobacco epidemic causes a huge burden of mortality and morbidity worldwide. To achieve a smoke-free population in the long run, it is essential that young generations are prevented from experimenting and becoming regular smokers. For this, children and adolescents ought to be raised in environments where tobacco use is hardly visible, where non-smoking is an obvious norm, and where it is hard for them to access and use tobacco products. Key to such tobacco-free environments is legislation that bans the use of smoking at places visited by youth. To date, in Europe, much progress has been made in the adoption of smoke-free policies. Yet, policies in most countries do not, or only partially, cover outdoor settings such as school grounds, recreation parks, and sports grounds. The latter are particularly important as these are places where many children and adolescents spend much of their spare time, develop beliefs and attitudes regarding what is healthy, meet peers and make friends, and watch important role models such as trainers. In recent years, about 200 Dutch outdoor sports clubs implemented smoke-free measures at their venues. Many of these clubs were encouraged and supported by organisations such as the Dutch Heart Foundation. The latter has developed a “road map” that specified (a) the type of actions that clubs could undertake to make venues smoke-free and (b) possible strategies to get these measures adopted by the club and implemented in practice. Unfortunately, it is highly uncertain whether the recommended actions and strategies do adequately seize this unique opportunity to protect children against smoking. Smoke-free policies at schools serve as a warning . These policies could be effective in preventing youth smoking, but such positive effects may be reduced, nullified or even reversed when policies are only partially implemented, if communication is inadequate, or if enforcement is either weak or rigid . Similar effects may as well occur at sports clubs. The potential impact of smoke-free policies on youth smoking may not be achieved if exemptions are allowed for specific places (e.g. terraces), times (e.g. evenings) or events (e.g. club parties, training camps). Poor communication may strengthen resistance instead of enhancing support. Rigid or weak enforcement may affect acceptance of the new rules. However, it is uncertain which of these problems do really arise at sports clubs, and how they can be prevented. Our knowledge is limited because it is mostly based on experiences of advisors and contact persons at clubs, but not on that of the “end users” themselves: the youth. We urgently need to know their views, responses and experiences, in order to understand how smoke-free policies influence their lives, and how this influence can be enhanced. The main goal of this project is therefore to determine how smoke-free policies at sports clubs contribute to an environment that prevents young people from taking up smoking. We take the perspective of adolescents at clubs with outdoor team sports, in particular football, hockey and korfball. We expect that smoke-free policies contribute to an environment that (1) strengthen positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding non-smoking and (2) reduce the risk of exposure to peer groups that promote pro-smoking lifestyles. However, we also expect these influences to largely depend on the precise actions taken, their implementation, and the club context. We perform two empirical studies. - The first starts in 2019, as a comparative study among 8 clubs with smoke-free policies and 8 clubs without such policies. At each club, we have two focus-group discussions with 14-16 years olds regarding their attitudes and beliefs towards sports and smoking, their social norms, and when/where they smoke. Moreover, we obtain relevant club-level information by field observations and structured interviews with board members, volunteers and parents. - The second study starts in 2020. In an experimental design, we recruit and follow 15 clubs that will initiate smoke-free policies for the first time. These clubs will be monitored using focus group discussions, field observations and structured interviews. In the analysis, particular attention is given to smoking-related changes and their relation to policy implementation. We will use the empirical evidence to develop the road map in three stages, such that the road map will be increasingly more evidence-based, refined, and adaptable to the context of specific clubs. After each stage, new versions of the road map will be disseminated through the national Centre of Healthy Living, nation-wide networks of Public Health Services, national sports organisations, training courses, and individual advocates. Moreover, we will invest in the long-term use of the road map, and promote structural measures (legislative, organizational, financial) to encourage and support sports clubs in protecting their youth. .